Counts and shares of men in United Kingdom armed forces from 1787-1816 (mobilization for Napoleonic wars) and 1909-1949 (mobilization for World War I & II).
The composition of punishment, measured by absence, shifted from over half banishment in 1775 to overwhelmingly imprisonment by 1880.
Britain transported many convicts in the 18th and 19th centuries. Banishment is a more general description of the British practice of transportation.
Useful and reasonably consistent prison statistics for England and Wales are available by county from 1780.
Branding, whipping, and transportation ended. Imprisonment became the dominant sentence of punishment.
Relatively late development of US execution statistics reflects a US history of decentralized, relatively informal punishment by death.
Prisoners, banishments (transportation), and executions yearly by sex in England & Wales from 1715, aggregated to punishment per 100,000 of population (punishment prevalence), with sex ratio of punishment and punishment distribution (% absent from execution, % absent from being transported, and % absent from being in prison).
Punishment sentences by category and subcategory, yearly by sex, for cases in the Old Bailey court, London, from 1674-1913. Counts are of persons sentenced to specified punishments.
Clark-Mossop execution statistics are a significant improvement in historical statistics for executions in England and Wales.
Penal executions in England and Wales before 1800, by year and by sex. Includes data by region.
Persons executed under death penalty, by year and by sex in London area (London and Middlesex). Includes data on sentences, reprieves, and execution type (hanging and burning).
Persons executed, by year and by sex in England and Wales from 1800. Year summary counts and person-specific data indicating place and date of execution and age of person.
Convicts transported to America, 1716-1775, totals by year and sex. Convicts transported from London, Middlesex, and the Home Counties by voyage, totaled and scaled up to England and Wales and separated by sex.
British convicts transported to Australia, annually by sex, 1787-1867. Roster of transportation voyages, including ship name, ship characteristics, departure and arrival dates, departure place, destination, embarked convicts, and landed convicts. With data on transported convicts ages and length of transportation sentences.
Long-run data on prisoner counts by sex. Prisoners distinguished as debtors and criminals, prisoners held in local prisons and convict prisons, including hulks. Yearly data on prison commitments by sex, 1905-1892.
Contemporary claims before 1775 about the number of prisoners for debt, ranging from 5,000 to over 100,000. Daniel Defoe’s figures for debtor prisoners about 1709. Debtors counts by prison, 1691 and 1779.
Prisoner statistics from John Howard’s prison inspections, 1776-1788, including prisoner counts for individual prisons in 1779.
Total prisoners by sex and by debtor / non-debtor, roughly estimated using commitment trends, hulk statistics, and prisoner totals for 1810.
Prison populations of debtor-prisoners, commitments, sex ratio of imprisoned debtors, familial relations of imprisoned debtors, and the legal process of debtor incarceration.
Males and females committed to prisons in 1805 and 1806 by county in England and Wales, from James Neild, State of Prisons.
Prisoners totals by individual prisons, by sex and debtors, felons, and petty offenders, with prisoners in hulks and in military prisons, from James Neild’s State of the Prisons (1812).
Prisoner for individual prisons from prison inspectors’ Gaol Returns for 1820. Estimated total prisoners, accounting for misreporting of commitments as prisoners in prison.
Gaol Returns for England and Wales1823, showing debtors, misdemeanors, and felons by sex, capacity in separate cells and total, commitments, and greatest number held. With calculated summary statistics.
Debtors, criminals, and prisoners in hulks by sex for individual prisons in England & Wales in 1830. Commitments, untried prisoners, greatest number of prisoners at one time. From prison inspectors reports.
Prisoners counts for individual prisons in England and Wales in 1836. For each prison, county, place, institution type, in custody by sex, and received (commitments) by sex. Estimated total for England and Wales.
Average number of prisoners in 1838, by sex for individual prisons, with estimated total for England and Wales. From prison inspector reports.
Average number of prisoners by sex, greatest number of prisoners by sex, for individual prisons in England and Wales in 1840, with estimated prisoners totals for England and Wales. From prison inspectors’ reports.
Average number of prisoners by sex for individual prisons in 1850, with estimated totals for England and Wales. From prison inspectors’ reports.
Male and female prisoner counts for individual prisons in 1864, with estimate total prisoners by sex for England and Wales. From prisoner inspectors’ reports.
Average daily number of prisoners in England and Wales in 1892 by sex, with subtotals by county. From prison inspectors’ report.
Prisoners in custody summed from individual prison reports of prisoner inspectors to county-level totals, by decade, excluding 1790 and 1800. Totals exclude prisoners held in hulks. Matching prisons across years in prison inspectors’ reports is difficult because of vague and inconsistent prison descriptions.
Yearly figures for convict prisoners held on hulks, 1777-1856, with ship-specific data by year compared for Campbell (2001) and original hulk inspector reports.
Prisoners in major London prisoners by prison for 1779, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850. Notes on opening and closings of major London prisons.
Life-disposing punishment was highly prevalent in early-modern England, while the Bloody Code was about as punishing as today’s criminal justice system.
Yearly population figures, 1715-2010; population by sex for census years, 1801 to 1981; population by counties, 1771-1841; population by age, sex, and marital status in 1911, and other population statistics.
Counties in England, according to the Association of British Counties, with major cities in county; traditional counties of England, with name variants and status.
The ratio of men to women in prison is much higher now than it was from 1780 to 1920. Prison policy leaders support greater punishment gender inequality.
The ratio of men to women in prison in England and Wales was about 18 in 2000. Major justice reform recommendations would increase that gender inequality.
Across the 18th and 19th centuries, Scotland banished (transported) many fewer offenders on a per capita basis than did England in Wales.