Britain transported many convicts in the 18th and 19th centuries. Banishment is a more general description of the British practice of transportation.
Useful and reasonably consistent prison statistics for England and Wales are available by county from 1780.
Branding, whipping, and transportation ended. Imprisonment became the dominant sentence of punishment.
Scottish males sentenced to penal servitude were sent to prisons in England from 1855 through about 1892.
A Scottish male convict could get one-fourth of his sentence remitted, while a Scottish female convict could get one-third of her sentence remitted.
British convicts actually transported to Australia had transportation sentences averaging 15.8 and 10.1 years for males and females, respectively.
New media technologies greatly extended democratic deliberation in Britain beginning in the 1920s.
The ratio of men to women in prison in England and Wales was about 18 in 2000. Major justice reform recommendations would increase that gender inequality.
Scotland centralized prison administration in 1839. Similar reform in England did not occur until 1877.
Across the 18th and 19th centuries, Scotland banished (transported) many fewer offenders on a per capita basis than did England in Wales.