After Jonas Hanway pioneered its application to prisons, the phrase “evil communication” appeared occasionally in writings on prison administration.
Scottish males sentenced to penal servitude were sent to prisons in England from 1855 through about 1892.
A Scottish male convict could get one-fourth of his sentence remitted, while a Scottish female convict could get one-third of her sentence remitted.
Prisoners, banishments (transportation), and executions yearly by sex in Scotland from 1800, aggregated to punishment per 100,000 of population punishment prevalence), with sex ratio of punishment and punishment distribution (% absent from execution, % absent from being transported, and % absent from being in prison).
While Scottish & English criminal justice systems differ, Scotland paralleled England with a large increase in the prisoner sex ratio from 1920.
Total number of persons executed in Scotland, by year and sex, from 1800. Characteristics of individual executions, including sex, age, crime, and place of execution
Average daily prisoners in Scotland from 1840, yearly by sex. Scottish male convicts, including those in penal servitude in England, yearly 1855-1892. Prison commitments yearly by sex.
Scotland centralized prison administration in 1839. Similar reform in England did not occur until 1877.
Prisoner commitments, greatest number, debtors, male criminal prisoners, female criminal prisoners, for individual prisons by county and place in Scotland in 1820.
Across the 18th and 19th centuries, Scotland banished (transported) many fewer offenders on a per capita basis than did England in Wales.