Eastern State Penitentiary Costs, 1821 to 1844

Construction and operating cost of the Eastern State Penitentiary near Philadelphia, which pioneered the separate system of suppressing prisoners’ communication. Cost per cell compared to other early U.S. prisons.

Spectator Business at Early 19th-Century U.S. Prisons

Spectator counts and spectator revenue for U.S. state prisons in the 1840s, with time series 1820 to 1862 for Auburn State Prison, New York; and 1829 to 1902 for Eastern State Penitentiary, Pennsylvania.

Death Rate in Early U.S. State Prisons

About 3% of prisoners died per year under the Auburn and Pennsylvania prison regimes in early 19th-century U.S. Much larger figures are incorrect.

Public Figures and Penal Scholars Study U.S. Models

In the 19th century, public figures and penal scholars from around the world visited Auburn State Prison or Eastern State Penitentiary and discussed extensively their penal communicative practices.

Visits to Prisoners in Eastern State Penitentiary, 1846-1903

Visits per year and per prisoner by members of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, 1846-1903, with some per visitor data. Visits to prisoners by moral instructor employed by Eastern State Penitentiary.