Spectator Business at Early 19th-Century U.S. Prisons

Spectator counts and spectator revenue for U.S. state prisons in the 1840s, with time series 1820 to 1862 for Auburn State Prison, New York; and 1829 to 1902 for Eastern State Penitentiary, Pennsylvania.

Death Rate in Early U.S. State Prisons

About 3% of prisoners died per year under the Auburn and Pennsylvania prison regimes in early 19th-century U.S. Much larger figures are incorrect.

Public Figures and Penal Scholars Study U.S. Models

In the 19th century, public figures and penal scholars from around the world visited Auburn State Prison or Eastern State Penitentiary and discussed extensively their penal communicative practices.

Elam Lynds, New York Prison Keeper

Elams Lynds was an early 19th-century New York prison keeper associated with the Auburn System, strict order, and brutal floggings.

19th-Century Prison Library Book Catalogs

About 6300 prison library books from 15 prison library catalogs dated 1809-1877. Also statistics on distribution of prison books by subject/type.