Philadelphia, Boston, and New York in mid-19th century had active, well-supported civic groups concerned with prisons, prisoners, and prison discipline.
In mid-19th-century New York, the Prison Association and state prison inspectors were similarly positioned to create public knowledge about prisons.
The Prison Association of New York and the official state prison inspectors sharply criticized each other’s actions in inspecting prisons.
The NY Prison Association’s statutory authority became controversial after a 1847 NY prison law made subtle changes in prison inspection authority.
The Prison Association of New York and state prison inspectors battled over prison inspection authority in mid-19th century New York.
The Prison Association of New York sought public knowledge about prison conditions and valued little prisoners’ communication with family and friends.
Battles between the Prison Association of New York and New York prison inspectors have left a textual mark in the current New York Constitution.
The Prison Association of New York changed its name to the Correctional Association of New York in 1961. Its mission and activities changed little.
John Edmonds supported a harsh disciplinary regime at Sing Sing prison in 1843, but subsequently became a leading prison inspector and reformer.
John Edmonds led the founding of the Prison Association of New York from his position as a Sing Sing prison inspector.
John Edmonds was a founder of the Prison Association of New York, and a high officer of it from 1844 to 1855.