Press gangs, which generated political strife, were better than magistrates only in the sense that they more usefully disposed of men.
Male civilian prisoners in 1944 were subjects in dangerous malaria medical experiments directed to helping U.S. men fighting WWII in the Pacific.
The white feather was transformed from being associated with disreputable cock-fighting to being a potent means for shaming men into fighting in WWI.
The ratio of men to women in prison during the US Civil War was substantially lower than the sex ratio before and after.
During periods of war, punishment sex ratios tend to be less male-biased than during periods of peace.